According tough Clough and Earle, Mental Strength is first the capacity that an individual has to deal effectively with the stressors, challenges and pressure to present their best performance in spite of their circumstances (2012), and according to Clough & Strycharczyk, it is also part of the personality trait that contributes the large part of how an individual deal with stress, the pressures and challenges facing … Willingness to push boundaries, accept risks, and learn from mistakes and failures. One of the most critical elements to building mental toughness and keeping a strong and focused mind is having a strong “why” for all of your short and long-term goals.. As the mental toughness concept increased in popularity, researchers began questioning its scientific merit and pushing for the development of an operational definition so that mental toughness could be quantified and studied using the tools of science. Top-tier athletes know that mental toughness training is a part of their great athletic achievements. Mentally tough people have a quality called “sticktoitiveness” – a dogged perseverance in achieving the goals that they have set for themselves despite setbacks and occasional failures. To be mentally tough, you must have some degree of resilience, but not all resilient individuals are necessarily mentally tough. The widespread use of the 4C model is due in large part to the efforts of its developers in extending its scope of application beyond sports and into the domains of education, business, and the military. Â. Mental Toughness can be developed through training interventions, coaching and helping individuals adopting behaviour of mentally tough individuals, which ultimately maximises resilience and confidence in teams and organisations. This definition considers mental toughness as a constituent of the stress process, whereby the word “propensity” considers that mental toughness resid… Although the different research groups cannot see eye to eye on a definitive collection of factors, there is substantial overlap on at least a couple of factors.  These are: robust self-confidence: a durable conviction in one’s ability to succeed, resilience: an ability to recover quickly following adversity, defeat, or injury. For mos… … The qualities of mentally strong people include compassion, caring and patience. Contact Kathy A. Feinstein a certified Sports Performance Consultant in Naples, Florida. A mentally tough athlete treats practice and pre-season competitions with the same intensity as league and post-season games. Piggybacking off of the already well-established concept of “hardiness” (with its 3 components of control, challenge, and commitment), Clough and colleagues added a 4th component of confidence, which they felt was essential to the notion of mental toughness. I define mental toughness as being "able to access their talent at the highest level they are capable on a consistent basis regardless of the situation."  From an empirical perspective, this “everything but the kitchen sink” notion is problematic because it does not allow for standardization and scientific analysis. Some psychologists have argued that a separate, sport-specific definitions of mental toughness should be developed. History is rife with championships being won on the last ditch effort of some one-hit wonder that only has that one situation to their name, then fades shortly after. They have highlighted that the attributes of a mentally tough athlete in one sport may differ greatly from the attributes of a mentally tough athlete in a different sport. Their “survive and thrive” definition of mental toughness as being RESILENCE, the ability to bounce back from setbacks and failures and CONFIDENCE, the ability to spot and seize opportunities, is a sound and symmetrical definition which I use all the time.  There are seemingly just as many measurement instruments floating around out there as there are definitions.  What emerges is a two-factor conceptualization in which mental toughness is considered a combination of robust self-confidence and resilience. Mental health (wellbeing) is starting to be considered an important part of sporting excellence. A mentally tough person is someone who is comfortable in their own skin, they take what comes in their stride and enjoy the challenge. Challenge: Willingness to push boundaries, accept risks, and learn from mistakes and failures. An Investigation of Elite Sport Performers, Mental Toughness and Success in Sport: A Review and Prospect, A Qualitative Exploration of Choking in Elite Golf, Mental Toughness in Sport: Achievement Level, Gender, Age, Experience, and Sport Type Differences. Connect With Your Purpose. Mentally tough people do not shy away from the spotlight. Today’s headlines are tomorrow’s fish wrappings, so to be great you need to be consistent. Many of these traits are highly sought after, however, they are often showcased to hide underlying feelings of fear, anxiety, or uncertainty. They have an “unshakeable” belief that they will ultimately succeed that is unperturbed by challenges, adversity, or even defeat. In Webster’s Dictionary, mental is defined as relating to the mind. It is clear, however, that several issues regarding conceptualization, measurement, utility, and diversity need to be addressed before mental toughness research can be said to rest on a firm scientific foundation.  They are able to identify and focus on the things that are under their control and don’t waste time worrying or complaining about things outside of their control. Mentally tough people do not shy away from the spotlight. When they need to confront a toxic person, they approach the situation rationally. Mentally tough people view obstacles as a challenge, not as a paralyzing event. Mentally tough people love to be challenged. These are the strategies I teach. In most sports the next play or the next move is the same no matter if it’s at practice or in the last few minutes of the championship game. The following comes from a previous note found here I sent out a while back but thought it was worth sharing again. Dr. Dave Schroerlucke is a mental performance expert helping individuals and teams develop the attitudes, habits, and mental skills that promote optimal performance, particularly within the context of competitive or high-stakes environments. Mental toughness is a core skill to have at hand when dealing with challenge and change in the working environment. By having a well developed pre-, during and post-performance routine you steer clear of one of the most dangerous activities a performer can engage in: thinking! When speaking of mental toughness people utter words like dominant, stoic, unaffected, or robotic. The widespread use of the 4C model is due in large part to the efforts of its developers in extending its scope of application beyond sports and into the domains of education, business, and the military.  The 4C model also enjoys a prominent role in health psychology, where mental toughness is seen as an important moderator between stress and illness. He defines mental toughness as “an individual’s propensity to manage the demands of environmental stressors, ranging from an absolute resilience to extreme vulnerability” (Fletcher & Fletcher, 2005; p. 158; Fletcher, 2005; p. 1246). And this, in many ways, is the central idea of mental toughness – that it facilitates an adaptive rather than a maladaptive response to challenging circumstances. For … The DNA of Mentally Tough People. Mental Toughness describes the capacity of an individual to deal effectively with stressors, pressures and challenges, and perform to the best of their ability, irrespective of the circumstances in … A mentally tough athlete treats practice and pre-season competitions with the same intensity as league and post-season games. Becoming mentally strong is not something that you can just decide to do, and it usually doesn't happen overnight. Research shows that mentally tough children perform up to 25% better in exams. In this article, I aim to bring some conceptual clarity to this topic by reviewing the various ways that mental toughness has been defined and measured in the research literature.  I then weigh the empirical evidence on the question of whether mental toughness is useful as a predictive variable for high achievement. Mental toughness made its sports debut in the mid-1980s with the early work of Jim Loehr, who defined it rather loosely as “the ability to consistently perform towards the upper range of your talent and skill regardless of competitive circumstances.” Â. Mentally tough people love to be challenged. Here within this final section, let’s break down the DNA of mentally tough people. It’s practice that takes work, but if … Mentally Tough individuals performance consistently under pressure and deal better with stress and challenges. It is defined differently depending on who you ask. Specifically, let’s take a look at core beliefs, habits and the mindset that mentally tough people cultivate that helps them get through life’s toughest challenges. Sense of personal responsibility for life circumstances and regulation of emotions. “...on a consistent basis…” Anyone can be great in a random chance moment. People who are mentally tough develop good habits, and then they stick with them. This 2-factor model can be reconciled with the 4C’s above if control and commitment are considered subfactors of resilience while confidence and challenge are subsumed under robust self-confidence, as in the graphic below: Thus, if remembering all 4 components of the 4C model exceeds your working memory capacity, you can simplify it down to only two! Routines help us to trust the process and not focus on the outcome. What Is This Thing Called Mental Toughness? They look at their failures and mistakes as lessons to be learned from and opportunities for growth. Strong internal drive to succeed and relentless pursuit of goals. Mentally tough people do not externalize blame or credit. mentally definition: 1. connected with or related to the mind: 2. connected with or related to the mind: . Â. Mentally tough people don’t let the thoughts and opinions of others define the way they experience situations; instead, they let themselves be the judge of how they feel and how they act. And it's a lot harder than it sounds. “Mental toughness is having the natural or developed psychological edge that enables you to:Â, better than your opponents with the many demands (competition, training, lifestyle) that sport places on the performer. Â. “...regardless of the situation.” A mentally tough athlete treats practice and pre-season competitions with the same intensity as league and post-season games. The 4C model also enjoys a prominent role in health psychology, where mental toughness is seen as an important moderator between stress and illness. Differences have been hypothesized between male and female athletes, as well as between "team sport" and "individual sport" athletes, but to date, little empirical evidence has shown what these differences are. The result was their 4 C model of mental toughness: Control: Sense of personal responsibility for life circumstances and regulation of emotions. In the sports setting, several research groups have adopted a more “subjective” approach to defining mental toughness, choosing to rely on the collective wisdom of elite athletes, coaches, and sport psychologists. A mentally tough individual sees challenge and adversity as an opportunity and not a threat, and has the confidence and positive approach to take what comes in their stride (Strycharczyk, 2015). There is an encouraging change taking place behind the scenes in elite sport around the world. Learn more.  Â, Confidence: Deeply ingrained belief in one’s ability and comfort asserting oneself interpersonally. What is this Thing Called Mental Toughness? What Is This Thing Called Mental Toughness? The only difference is the audience. Toughness is defined as strong and durable. Being Mentally Well and Mentally Tough are not the same thing. Specifically, be more consistent and better than your opponents in remaining determined, focused, This definition has been criticized for its emphasis on being “better than opponents” and thus describing a relative rather than an absolute notion of mental toughness.  Nevertheless, it set the stage for nearly two decades of research during which,  numerous alternative definitions have been put forward, each promising to be the one that unites the field. Â, One thing that all research groups seem to agree on is that mental toughness comprises a number of interrelated psychological factors that help an individualÂ, deal effectively with challenges, stressors, and pressure”Â,  a durable conviction in one’s ability to succeed,  an ability to recover quickly following adversity, defeat, or injury, In a 2017 review of 19 quantitative studies from 2007-2016 relating mental toughness to competitive standard, performance, and achievement, Richard Cowden found that the results collectivelyÂ, “support the commonly held belief that mentally tougher athletes tend to be more successful”, “88% of relevant studies found athletes with higher levels of mental toughness tend to achieve more or perform better.”, Qualitative studies have provided additional support for the role of mental toughness in performance, particularly during critical moments.  For example, choke-prone elite golfers identified, low mental toughness as an important feature of their choking episodesÂ, mental toughness not only reduces susceptibility to choking, but also increases the odds of recovering optimal performance after a choke has occurredÂ, romanticized ideal that reinforces the pathologically macho culture of competitive sportÂ, In this article, I reviewed several attempts by researchers to bring scientific rigor to the mental toughness concept.  What emerges is a two-factor conceptualization in which, mental toughness is considered a combination of, Yet another important unsettled debate involves the proverbial nature-nurture question: Are some people just born with more mental toughness or is it something that can be developed through training? It's called “Jeet Kune Do” and it states: “Adapt what is useful, reject what is not, and add what is specifically your own.”.  Given that no consensus definition has been reached, the best we can do at this point is look at the overlap between the most widely used definitions. Dr. Dave shares his expertise via blogging, individual coaching, team workshops, and speaking engagements. In most sports the next play or the next move is the same no matter if it’s at practice or in the last few minutes of the championship game. Many times a defeat is the seed of discontent we need to motivate us to improve our game. Get in the habit of always playing at the height of your ability and you will see that ability continue to grow. Here are a few of them in chronological order: Eenie meenie miney mo… Take your pick. The Strycharczyk and Clough definition of mental toughness, and the MTQ 4C’s framework that supports it, focuses on resilience and confidence and their related attributes that enable you to perform at your best, whatever the circumstances. Mentally tough individuals tend to be sociable and outgoing; as they are able to remain calm and relaxed, they are competitive in many situations and have lower anxiety levels than others. An Investigation of Elite Sport Performers, by Jones, Hanton, & Connaughton, 2002, Developing Mental Toughness, by Clough & Strycharczyk, 2012, Mental Toughness and Success in Sport: A Review and Prospect, by R. Cowden, 2017, Mental Toughness: Progress and Prospects, by D. Gucciardi, 2017, A Qualitative Exploration of Choking in Elite Golf, by Hill, Hanton, Matthews, & Fleming, 2010, A Re-examination of Choking in Sport, by Hill, Hanton, and Fleming, 2009, Mental Toughness in Sport: Achievement Level, Gender, Age, Experience, and Sport Type Differences, by Nichols, Polman, Levy, & Backhouse, 2009, The Social Construction of Mental Toughness, by Caddick and Ryall, 2012. The two questions I get most often are what is mental toughness and how do you develop it? “...at the highest level...” Whitey Bimstein, a long time boxer and trainer once said, “Show me an undefeated fighter and I'll show a guy who's never fought anybody.” His point was to show that an athlete should seek out the best competition even if that means losing once in a while. They sleep better, show better attendance, are more engaged in the classroom and have higher aspirations. A … Being mentally tough isn’t about how smart, confident or motivated you are.  They have an “unshakeable” belief that they will ultimately succeed that is unperturbed by challenges, adversity, or even defeat. If you set out to achieve a huge goal that you don’t have a “why” for, you’re going to find yourself distracted, discouraged, or disengaged as soon as you experience your first setback. As a natural corollary to the conceptual confusion described above, measurement of the mental toughness construct has not been consistent across studies. They look for … Commitment: Strong internal drive to succeed and relentless pursuit of goals. My definition of mental toughness is the ability to remain calm, cool and collected no matter what the situation.  Good question. Challenge: Willingness to push boundaries, accept risks, and learn from mistakes and failures. As a society we place too much emphasis on having no losses on our record.  Although each scale often comes with a persuasive discussion of the theoretical rationale for its development, none has achieved gold-standard status and all suffer from equivocal findings with respect to their psychometric properties (validity and reliability).  Accordingly, there is no real basis upon which to recommend one measure over any other. “...they are capable…” Your effort has nothing to do with the competition. You can become mentally stronger--and as a result more successful! Fletcher (Fletcher & Fletcher, 2005; Fletcher, 2005) provides an alternative way of viewing mental toughness. One could write volumes and volumes of how to become mentally tough. According to Clough’s model, mental toughness is made up of four components that psychologists call the “4Cs:” challenge, control, commitment, and confidence. Being mentally and emotionally strong means that you can behave normally no matter how much stress is presented.  They have an opportunity mindset, meaning that they tend to view pressure situations as exciting opportunities rather than debilitating threats. The only difference is the audience. Though the field of sport psychology is relatively new in comparison to traditional psychology, there are a few mental game strategies that have stood the test of time and brought much success to athletes before you. Coaches and sports commentators frequently espouse the importance of mental toughness in competitive athletes. Mentally tough people are flexible and are constantly adapting. If you are willing to suspend your (well-placed) skepticism for a moment and disregard the unstable foundation upon which mental toughness research rests, we can explore the evidence for whether it (whatever “it” is) can be considered a useful construct for predicting differences in performance.  We will discuss the quantitative (statistical) and qualitative (descriptive) evidence separately.Â, In a 2017 review of 19 quantitative studies from 2007-2016 relating mental toughness to competitive standard, performance, and achievement, Richard Cowden found that the results collectively “support the commonly held belief that mentally tougher athletes tend to be more successful” as “88% of relevant studies found athletes with higher levels of mental toughness tend to achieve more or perform better.”Â, Qualitative studies have provided additional support for the role of mental toughness in performance, particularly during critical moments.  For example, choke-prone elite golfers identified low mental toughness as an important feature of their choking episodes  (Hill et al, 2010) and four applied sport psychologists with experience at the elite level agreed that mental toughness not only reduces susceptibility to choking, but also increases the odds of recovering optimal performance after a choke has occurred (Hill et al, 2009), Although these results suggest that perhaps there is a there there when it comes to mental toughness research, the whole enterprise has come under attack as a biased social construct that reeks of elitism and stereotypical masculinity.  Several studies have indeed found significant differences across gender and competitive status – with more accomplished male athletes tending to rate higher in mental toughness .  Some critics have gone as far as to argue that mental toughness is nothing more than a romanticized ideal that reinforces the pathologically macho culture of competitive sport (see Caddick & Ryall, 2012). Â. “Mentally tough” has become the go-to phrase to describe the successful athlete or performer. In most sports the next play or the next move is the same no matter if it’s at practice or in the last few minutes of the championship game. Becoming mentally tough doesn’t happen overnight. Â, In my next article, I will address this question by doing what I always do –. This concludes that mental toughness means to have a strong and durable mind. Not every strategy may help you, so take the Bruce Lee philosophy of learning on your search. The researchers take care to note that just because ambition is … However, overall, thinking prevents us from being in the moment and trusting our innate talent and highly practiced skills. 2. Thinking is an important part of strategizing before a play and, in some situations, it is important to think through a game situation during a play. Having become a sort of default explanation for any victory in challenging situations, mental toughness has been criticized as “one of the most used but least understood terms in applied sport psychology” (Jones, Hanton, & Connaughton, 2002).  In my next article, I will address this question by doing what I always do – looking at the evidence, if any exists, for training techniques designed to enhance mental toughness. The definition of grit almost perfectly describes qualities every successful person possesses, because mental toughness builds the foundations for long-term success.  But ask someone what they mean by mental toughness, and you are bound to hear a fuzzy description that might include just about any positive psychological attribute imaginable. Most studies focusing around mental toughness have lacked methodological diversity and therefore longitudinal studies may benefit researchers who are trying to study mental toughness. How do you know how mentally tough you are? Having become a sort of default explanation for any victory in challenging situations, mental toughness has been criticized as, “one of the most used but least understood terms in applied sport psychology”, Mental toughness made its sports debut in the mid-1980s with the early work of Jim Loehr, who defined it rather loosely as, “the ability to consistently perform towards the upper range of your talent and skill regardless of competitive circumstances.”. But what exactly are they talking about? They know that fear of change is paralyzing and a major threat to their success and happiness. Laurence Gonzales, author of SURVIVING SURVIVAL: The … The Beliefs of a Mentally Tough … In a sea of athletes who may be bigger, faster, and stronger than you, always seek out ways to be able to access your talent on a moments notice. 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